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Template:Refimprove In cryptography, a product cipher combines two or more transformations in a manner intending that the resulting cipher is more secure than the individual components to make it resistant to cryptanalysis.[1] The product cipher combines a sequence of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. The concept of product ciphers is due to Claude Shannon, who presented the idea in his foundational paper, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems.

A product cipher that uses only substitutions and permutations is called a SP-network. Feistel ciphers are an important class of product ciphers.


  1. Handbook of Applied Cryptography by Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot, Scott A. Vanstone. Fifth Printing (August 2001) page 251.

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