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Oneway function
In computer science, a oneway function is a function that is easy to compute on every input, but hard to invert given the image of a random input. Here "easy" and "hard" are to 
Paillier cryptosystem
The Paillier cryptosystem, named after and invented by Pascal Paillier in 1999, is a probabilistic asymmetric algorithm for public key cryptography. The problem of computing nth residue classes is believed to be computationally difficult 
RSA
Template:About In cryptography, RSA (which stands for Rivest, Shamir and Adleman who first publicly described it) is an algorithm for publickey cryptography. It is the first algorithm known to be suitable for signing 
Primality test
A primality test is an algorithm for determining whether an input number is prime. Amongst other fields of mathematics, it is used for cryptography. Unlike integer factorization, primality tests do not generally give prime factors 
Key (cryptography)
Template:Refimprove In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm or cipher. Without a key, the algorithm would have no result. In encryption 
Blum–Goldwasser cryptosystem
The BlumGoldwasser (BG) cryptosystem is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm proposed by Manuel Blum and Shafi Goldwasser in 1984. BlumGoldwasser is a probabilistic, semantically secure cryptosystem with a constantsize ciphertext expansion. The 
Goldwasser–Micali cryptosystem
The GoldwasserMicali cryptosystem (GM) is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm developed by Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali in 1982. GM has the distinction of being the first probabilistic publickey encryption scheme which is 
Nothing up my sleeve number
numbers such as π, e and irrational roots are believed to appear random. See normal number. Such numbers can be viewed as the opposite extreme of Chaitin–Kolmogorov random numbers in that they appear random 
Damgaard–Jurik cryptosystem
The DamgårdJurik cryptosystem is a generalization of the Paillier cryptosystem. It uses computations modulo where is an RSA modulus and a (positive) natural number. Paillier's scheme is the special case with. The order 
Generating primes
numbers efficiently. These are used in various applications, for example hashing, publickey cryptography, and search of prime factors in large numbers. For relatively small numbers, it is possible to just apply trial division to 
Industrialgrade prime
instead of certified primes in algorithms such as RSA encryption, which require the user to generate large prime numbers. Certifying the primality of large numbers (over 100 digits for instance) is significantly harder than showing 
Relatively prime
Two numbers are "relatively prime" when they have no common factors other than 1. In other words you cannot evenly divide both by some common value. 
Secret sharing using the Chinese remainder theorem
Secret sharing consists of recovering a secret S from a set of shares, each containing partial information about the secret. The Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) states that for a given system of simultaneous congruence equations 
Feedback with Carry Shift Registers
a2,...,ar;z'). By iterating the state change an FCSR generates an infinite, eventually period sequence of numbers in S. FCSRs have been used in the design of stream ciphers (such as the FFCSR 
FeigeFiatShamir Identification Scheme
a parallel verification process that limits the number of communications between Peggy and Victor. Choose two large prime integers p and q and compute the product n= pq. Create secret numbers with gcd(, )= 1. Compute 
SHA1
Template:Infobox cryptographic hash function In cryptography, SHA1 is a cryptographic hash function designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the NIST as a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard. SHA 
Linear feedback shift register
Template:Redirect Template:Refimprove Template:No footnotes A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. 
Rabin cryptosystem
The Rabin cryptosystem is an asymmetric cryptographic technique, whose security, like that of RSA, is related to the difficulty of factorization. However the Rabin cryptosystem has the advantage that the problem on which it relies 
Montgomery reduction
In arithmetic computation, Montgomery reduction is an algorithm introduced in 1985 by Peter Montgomery that allows modular arithmetic to be performed efficiently when the modulus is large (typically several hundred bits). A single application of 
Modular exponentiation
Modular exponentiation is a type of exponentiation performed over a modulus. It is particularly useful in computer science, especially in the field of cryptography. Doing a "modular exponentiation" means calculating the remainder when dividing by 
Index of cryptography articles
Articles related to cryptography include: Template:CompactTOC8 
Substitution cipher
In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encryption by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext according to a regular system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of 
Enigma machine
An Enigma machine is any of a family of related electromechanical rotor machines used for the encryption and decryption of secret messages. The first Enigma was invented by German engineer Arthur Scherbius at the 
Diffie–Hellman key exchange
Diffie–Hellman key exchange (D–H) is a specific method of exchanging keys. It is one of the earliest practical examples of Key exchange implemented within the field of cryptography. The Diffie–Hellman key exchange 
Elliptic curve cryptography
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to publickey cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. The use of elliptic curves in cryptography was suggested independently by Neal Koblitz
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